The Embassy of the Russian Federation in the United Kingdom, “The Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation 2016,” called July 19, 2019.  Indian Embassy, India-Russia Defence Cooperation, called May 30, 2019. Now, cooperation is not limited to a buyer-seller relationship, but includes joint research and development, training, service-to-service contacts, including joint exercises. The last joint naval exercises were held in the Sea of Japan in April 2007 and joint air exercises were held in Russia in September 2007. An intergovernmental commission on military-technical cooperation is co-chaired by the defence ministers of both countries. The seventh meeting of this government commission was held in Moscow in October 2007. During the visit, an agreement was signed between the two countries on the joint development and production of potential multi-purpose fighters. The agreements were signed in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2nd Summit of India and Russia.  Franz-Stepan Gady, “India-Russia Aircraft Deal Terminated,” The Diplomat, has reached 26 May 2019. Nevertheless, Russia`s market share ensures that it remains a critical supplier for India, both for new weapons and for spare parts. Military-technical cooperation, which includes technology transfers and joint production, is a unique and extremely valuable relationship for India. The 2014 low was also corrected and major intergovernmental agreements were signed at the 2016 annual summit, including the delivery of the S-400 Triumph Air Defence Missile System and four Admiral Grigorovich class frigates  (contracts were concluded in 2018) and a shareholder contract for the manufacture of Ka-226T helicopters in India.
Traditionally, the strategic partnership between Indo-Russia consists of five main components: politics, defence, civil nuclear energy, counter-terrorism cooperation and space.  These five main elements were highlighted in a speech in Russia by former Indian Foreign Minister Ranyan Mathai.  In recent years, however, a sixth economic component has grown in importance, with both countries aiming to reach $30 billion by 2025 in bilateral trade of about $9.4 billion in 2017.  To achieve this goal, the two countries want to develop a free trade agreement.    Bilateral trade between the two countries increased by more than 24% in 2012.  The Soviet Union was for several decades a major supplier of defence equipment, and this role was inherited from the Russian Federation. Russia 68%, the United States 14% and Israel 7.2% are the main arms suppliers for India (2012-2016), and India and Russia have deepened their makeup in Indian defense manufacturing cooperation, signing agreements for the construction of marine frigates, ka-226T twin-engine supply helicopters (joint venture (JV) 60 in Russia and 140 in India), brahmos cruise missiles (JV with 50.5% India and 49.5% Russia) (Dec. 2017 update).  A cooperation agreement between India and Russia was signed in December 1988, which led to the sale of a large number of defence equipment to India and the emergence of countries as development partners as opposed to purely buyer-seller relationships, including joint venture projects for the development and production of the fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) and Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA).
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